Natural resources exploitation
Halt the loss of priority habitats.
In turn, the scenarios are calculated for three different choices of Hn twhere the dynamics follow Eqs. For another example, Hn t may characterize the persistent reduction in the yield of crop caused by the degradation of vital ecosystem services and the increase in the persistence of pests 33 We assume that, if the harvest methods do not change, then c t and f t increase exponentially at fixed rates, gc and gf, respectively, due to exogenous factors such as technological developments and exogenous environmental changes; however, changes in the patterns of harvest may affect c t and f tthereby affecting the discount rate over time see Methods.
Effects of natural resources on environment
Each year, Hn and Hs are determined by the aggregate management by all the managers. Specifically, the discount rate and the prices depend on the substitutability of the natural resource and the other goods, which is incorporated in the social welfare function. The bulk of the criticism 19 has focused on which discount rate should policymakers use not on the comprehensive cost assessments. Another mechanism that could affect the discount rate is a large perturbation that significantly affects social welfare 24 , 25 , such as an environmental degradation that may occur due to climate change or over-harvesting 26 , 27 , 28 , We assume that u c, f is given by Eq. Natural resources are those that our planet offers us without the need for human intervention. What are the consequences of the overexploitation of natural resources? Available statistics to monitor changes in the use of natural resources at the global and European levels are described in Box 13A. In turn, H t and Hn t are determined by the various harvest methods used in the system see Methods. Introduction The exploitation of ecosystems by humans has long-lasting consequences for the future provision of natural resources and ecosystem services 1 , 2. Specifically, a small difference in the discount may lead to a large difference in estimates of long-term environmental cost. Accurate discounting is particularly important for environmental policies in which the resultant damages are long-term, such as policies concerning climate change and provision of natural resources 6 , 17 , The former are inexhaustible, like solar radiation, or their renewal is relatively rapid, as is the case with biomass. The gradual transition postpones the decline in the cumulative discount, but ultimately, it declines to an even lower value than its value in system 1. Thus, if we continue at this rate, we would need 2.
This chapter focuses on major developments in the use of renewable and non-renewable resources in Europe in the context of global trends. Current rates of depletion of the Earth's stocks of renewable resources and levels of pressure imposed on their regenerative capacity by means of production and consumption might already be, in some cases, beyond this threshold.
Specifically, we assume that a given portion of the global ecosystem, H tis being harvested in year t, while some portion of the ecosystem, Hn tbecomes degraded during that year due to non-sustainable harvest, and cannot be used for harvest thereafter Fig.
In this paper, we examine how the discount rate and factor are affected by large changes in the harvest methods used at the global scale, such as the transition from over-harvesting to harvesting sustainably.
A11and the price of manufactured goods Eq. B2 or partially substitutable b, Eq.
Problems of natural resources
This factor may impose significantly higher values on future goods, e. Natural resources are those that our planet offers us without the need for human intervention. Accurate discounting is particularly important for environmental policies in which the resultant damages are long-term, such as policies concerning climate change and provision of natural resources 6 , 17 , Introduction The exploitation of ecosystems by humans has long-lasting consequences for the future provision of natural resources and ecosystem services 1 , 2. There are some 30 million different animal and plant species in the world, and of these, the International Union for Conservation of Nature IUCN says that in , 26, species are threatened with extinction. Our study shows that the transition to sustainable harvest methods after a period of over-harvesting is expected to result in a decline in social welfare, economic growth, and the discount rate. Specifically, the competitive market includes managed regions that have a single manager e.
All these assumptions are satisfied if u is given by Eqs. Freshwater, forests and harvesting products are renewable, provided that exploitation does not exceed regeneration.
Environmental impact of natural resources exploitation
In turn, in the competitive market solution see Methods , the rate of non-sustainable harvest is higher than the socially optimal rate, namely, the solution exhibits over-harvesting Fig. In turn, if society is going to be wealthier in the future, then one unit of consumed goods in the future may add less to welfare than the same unit today 14 , 15 , For Health: if we do not take care of the forests there will be fewer CO2 Nota sinks and therefore more air pollution. This approach builds on and generalizes previous studies that considered f t and c t that grows exponentially irrespective of the harvest 32 , Another mechanism that could affect the discount rate is a large perturbation that significantly affects social welfare 24 , 25 , such as an environmental degradation that may occur due to climate change or over-harvesting 26 , 27 , 28 , This allows us to examine how the discount factor and the prices depend on changes in harvest methods. The mechanism underlying this sharper decline is that the rate of increase in the provision of natural resources not only slows down, but must at some point become lower than it would be if over-harvesting had never occurred. In turn, social welfare depends on the provision of natural resources, and therefore, a decline in their provision implies a lower discount rate. In the early stages, harvesting activity increases exponentially and the discount rate is high. Freshwater, forests and harvesting products are renewable, provided that exploitation does not exceed regeneration. The total area under non-sustainable harvest in the shared regions increases over time, and consequently, f t continues to increase over an extended period of time, which postpones the decline in the discount rate. Results Theoretical framework We consider a social welfare function, UT, that depends on the provision of some natural resource at the global scale, f t , and on the consumption of the other goods, including manufactured goods, c t Methods, Eq.
Thus, if we continue at this rate, we would need 2.
based on 102 review