The spread of Islamic beliefs and civilization have been described from a variety of perspectives.
Syria may have had a Christian majority within its modern borders until the Mongol Invasions of the 13th century. That's clearly a critical view of this. The Muslim ruling class definitely had better political rights.
Mohammed, as we talked about, was born roughly in and dies in But according to Lapidus, "It is now apparent that conversion by force, "while not unknown in Muslim countries," so there was some forced conversion, but according to Lapidus was, in fact, rare, "Muslim conquerors ordinarily wished to dominate "rather than convert, and most conversions "to Islam were voluntary.
These people willingly converted to Islam from their ancestral religions, causing the Islamic empire to grow. When a group defied these words they were punished severely by the Moslems.